## Fluid Mechanics

Properties of Fluids
Fluid Statics
Control Volume Analysis, Integral Methods
Applications of Integral Methods
Potential Flow Theory
Examples of Potential Flow
Dimensional Analysis
Introduction to Boundary Layers
Viscous Flow in Pipes

### Sections :

• Properities of Fluids
• What is a Fluid?
• Continuum Hypothesis
• Viscosity
• Kinematic Viscosity
• Density
• Specific Volume
• Specific Weight
• Specific Gravity
• Pressure
• Temperature
• Velocity
• Ideal Gas Law
• Bulk Modulus
• Vapour Pressure
• Surface Tension
• Pressure inside a Drop of Fluid
• Capillary Tube
• Fluid Statics
• Fluid Forces
• Pressure at a Point within a Fluid
• Equation for Pressure Field
• Body Forces
• Total Force
• Incompressible Fluids
• Compressible Fluids, Properties of the Atmosphere
• Measurement of Pressure
• Manometry
• Mercury Barometer
• Piezometer Tube
• U-tube Manometer
• Differential U-tube Manometer
• Hydrostatic Force on a Submerged Surface
• Center of Pressure
• Geometric Properties of Common Shapes
• Hydrostatic Force on a Curved Surface
• Buoyance and Stability
• Stability of Immersed and Floating Bodies
• Control Volume Analysis, Integral Methods
• Basic Concepts, Velocity
• One, Two and Three Dimensional Flows
• Flow Description, Streamline, Pathline, Streakline and Timeline
• Eulerian and Lagrangian approaches
• System and Control Volume
• Differential and Integral Approaches
• Integral Equations, Basic Laws for Fluid Flow
• Conservation of Mass
• Newton’s Second Law of Motion
• Conservation of Energy
• Second Law of Thermodynamics
• Reynolds Transport Theorem
• Derivation of the Theorem for One-Dimensional Flow
• Conservation of Mass
• Incompressible Flow
• V.dA
• Application to One-Dimensional Control Volume
• Momentum Equation
• Bernoulli Equation
• Application of Continuity Equation
• Application of Momentum Equation
• Body Force
• Surface Forces
• Application to moving Control Volumes
• Equation for Angular Momentum
• Deformable Control Volumes with non-inertial acceleration
• Energy Equation
• Energy Equation for a One-Dimensional Control Volume
• Low Speed Applications
• Relationship between Energy and Bernoulii Equation
• Bernoulii Equation for Aerodynamic Flow
• Stagnation Pressure
• Energy Grade Line
• Kinetic Energy Correction Factor
• Applications of Integral Methods
• Flow through a Sharp-edged Orifice
• Flow through a Nozzle
• Flow through a Venturi Tube
• Important Applications of Control Volume Anaysis
• Measurement of Drag of a Body Immersed in a Fluid
• Continuity Equation
• Momentum Equation
• Jet Impingement on a Surface
• Forces on a Pipe Bend
• Froude’s Propeller Theory
• Continuity Equation
• Momentum Equation
• Bernoulli Equation
• Analysis of Wind Turbine
• Pressure Loss through a Sudden Expansion
• Continuity Equation
• Momentum Equation
• Bernoulli Equation
• Measurement of Airspeed
• Potential Flow Theory
• Conservation of Mass
• Continuity Equation in Cylindrical Coordinates
• Continuity Equation for Steady Flow
• Continuity Equation for Incompressible Flow
• Velocity Potential
• Streamfunction
• Streamfunction is constant along a Streamline
• Streamfunction change between two Streamlines is proportional to Volumetric Flow
• Streamfunction in Polar Coordinates
• Kinematics of Fluid Motion
• Translation
• Linear Deformation
• Rotation
• Angular deformation
• Circulation
• Occurance of Irrotational or Rotational Flows
• Simple Examples of Plane Potential Flows
• Potential Flow in Cartesian Coordinates
• Equations in Polar Coordinates
• Uniform Flow
• Source or Sink
• Vortex
• Circulation around a vortex
• Source-Sink Pair
• Doublet
• Superposition of Elementary Flows
• Uniform Flow and a Source
• Rankin Oval
• Flow around a Circular Cylinder
• Flow about a Lifting Cylinder
• Stagnation Points for a Lifting Cylinder
• Surface Pressure Distribution and Lift
• Magnus Effect
• Kutta-Joukowsky Theorem
• Examples of Potential Flow
• Horizontal Uniform Flow
• Uniform Flow at 10 degrees Angle of Attack
• Source or Sink Flow
• Vortex Flow
• Source in Horizontal Stream
• Vortex in Horizontal Stream
• Source-Sink Pair
• Source-Sink Pair in Horizontal Stream
• Doublet
• Doublet in Horizontal Stream (Circular Cylinder Flow)
• Rotating Cylinder in Uniform Flow
• Fast Rotating Cylinder in Uniform Flow
• Flow in Right Angle Corner
• Cylinder Flow near Wall (Cylinder Image Flow)
• Source-Sink Distribution in Uniform Flow (Streamlined Body)
• Dimensional Analysis
• Need for Non-Dimensional Numbers
• Buckingham-Pi Theorem
• Application of Buckingham-Pi Theorem
• Importance of Non-Dimensional Numbers
• Reynolds Number
• Froude Number
• Weber Number
• Pressure Coefficient
• Drag and Lift Coefficients
• Table : Important Non-Dimensional Numbers
• Similitude
• Geometric Similarity
• Kinematic Similarity
• Dynamic Similarity
• Introduction to Boundary Layers
• Viscous Effects in External Flows
• Boundary Layer Flow
• Laminar and Turbulent Boundary Layers
• Separation of Flow
• Drag
• Drag Coefficient
• Viscous Flow in Pipes
• Classification of Flows, Laminar and Turbulent
• Pressure along a Pipe
• Fully Developed Laminar Flow in a Pipe
• Volumetric Flow Rate
• Correction for Non-horizontal Pipes
• Energy Considerations, Friction factor
• Dimensional Analysis
• Turbulent Flow through Pipes
• Logarithmic Overlap Law
• Wall Layer
• Overlap Layer
• Outer Layer
• Power Law Velocity Profile